Sidee Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka uu u badelay tababarka milateri?

Wixii ka dambeeyay Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka, colaaddii ugu dhiigdaadashada badnayd ayaa waxaa ku dhintay 70 milyan oo qof, Mareykanka ayaa jeediyay hadal layaab lahaa oo ahaa: in dhimasho badan aanay dhicin.

Ama malaha si ka qurux badan haddii loo dhigo: ciidamo badan oo Ameerikaan ah kama aanay qeybgalin dilka.

Kooxdii 10 nin ka kooban, celcelis in ka yar saddex ayaa hubkooda ku riday goobaha dagaalka. Iyadoon la eegayn khibradooda ama halista uu cadawgu naftooda galin karo.

US troops advance against Japanese forces during World War TwoLahaanshaha sawirkaGETTY IMAGES
Image captionCiidammada Mareykanku miyey xishoonayeen Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka?

Taasi waa waxa taariikhyahan milateriga Mareykanka u qaabilsanaa faaqidaadda, Janaraal Samuel Lyman Atwood Marshall, uu ku qoray dhowr warbixin oo lagu daabacay joornaalo ka faallooda milateriga, kuwaas oo markii dambe noqday buuggiisa, Men Against Fire.

Shaqadiisa ayaa markaa kaddib si weyn loo dhaleeceeyay – oo dad badan ayaa waxa ay ku eedeeyeen inuu sameeyay beer abuur cad – hasayeeshee arrintaasi waxa ay waqtigaasi kacaan galisay tababarka milateriga Mareykanka.

Heerka toogashada

“Taliye ciidammada lugta ah ah ayaa waxaa si wanaagsan loogu sheegi jiray inuu rumaysto in markii ay cadawga isqabtaan in afar meelood oo meel raggiisa ay xabbad ridi doonaan,” waxaa sidaasi qortay Marshall.

“Qiyaastii 25%” ayuu ku daray, “waa xitaa ciidammada sida wanaagsan u tababaran ee misana la qalabeeyay. Waxaan ula jeedaa 75% wax xabbad ah ma ay ridayaan ama iskama ay difaacayaan rasaasta cadawga. Raggaas waxaa suuragal ah inay halis wajahaan laakiin ma dagaalamayaan,” ayuu yiri.

Soldiers marching during the 1940sLahaanshaha sawirkaGETTY IMAGES
Image captionCilmibaarista Marshall waxa ay badeshay sida loo tababaro ciidammada

Marshall ayaa ayaa markii dambe tiradii 75% ka badelay oo waxa uu ka dhigay celcelis ahaan 85%.

Maxay tahay sababta ciidammada Mareykanka ee lugta ee Yurub iyo Pacific aanay xabbado u ridin, xitaa markii ay halis weyn wajahayaan?

Marshall ayaa waxa uu qiyaasayaa in laba sababood ay arrintaasi salka ku hayso – in dadka badan ay badanaa kooxda u ogolaadaan inay howsha qabato iyo in sidoo kale ilbaxnimada ay Mareykanka galisay “cabsida daandaansiga” taas oo ka hor istaagtay inay dagaalamaan.

Soldiers on the ground walk through a field while helicopters fly overheadLahaanshaha sawirkaAFP
Image captionCilmibaaris ayaa waxa ay ku andacootay in ciidammada Mareykanka ee Vietnam ay u badneyd inay hubkooda adeegsadaan si ka duwan Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka

Ciidammada ayaa u baahnaa tababar si ay qoryahooda si xariir ah u ridaan markii ay dagaal ku jiraan, iyagoon fakarin ama dareenkooda aanan meesha keenin.

Gebagabada hadalkiisa ayuu ku sheegay in qofka caadiga ah ee Ameerikaanka ah uu nabadda jecelyahay, taas oo u horseedday in askariga la baro farsamooyinka ah in bini’aadamnimada uu meel iska dhigo inta dagaalku uu socdo.

Marshal ayaa qudhiisa waxaa uu sheegay in natiijadii ka soo baxday cilmi baaristii uu sameeyay ay keentay in Milateriga ay si dhab ah uga jawaabeen, heerka ridida xabadda na ay waxbadan iska badaleen.

Waxaa uu shaqadiisa ka sii waday dagaalkii labada Kuuriya, oo waxaan ridida xabadda ay kor ugu kacday boqolkiiba 55.

Habka la isticmaalay

Marshal ayaa horumuud u noqda waxa loogu yeeray “Kooxdii la wareystay, dagaalki kadib”.

Waxaa uu booqan jiray furinta hore, waxaana uu sheegtay in isu geyn uu la hadlay 400 oo askari, waxyar un kadib dagaalka, isagoona la hadlay raggii ka qeyb qaatay.

U.S. Army reinforcements march up a hill past a German bunker overlooking Omaha Beach after the D-Day landings near Colleville sur Mer, France, June 18, 1944Lahaanshaha sawirkaREUTERS
Image captionQaar ka mid ah ciidammada Mareykanka ayaa wareysiyo ay siiyeen Marshall waxa ay su’aal uga keeneen hadalka la sheegay

Askartii ayaa waxaa ay ka shekeyeen wixii ayaga iyo dadkii ku wehlinayay dagaalka ay sameyeen xiligii dagaalka.

Waxaa kale oo ay xuseen in uusan arnaba wareysanin ciidamadii lagu dhaawacay dagaalka, ama kuwii kale ee lagu dilay.

Farsoomooyinka Tababarka

Tababarka hore ee la siiyo ciidammada Mareykanka waxaa lagu tababaraa qalab ay u ku toog bartaan.

Hasayeeshee markii dagaalka rasmiga ah la galo taasi waa ay ka duwan ciidammaduna diyaar uma noqdaan inay rasaas ridaan.

An instructor shows the results of the soldiers' target practice, Aberdeen, Maryland, April 8, 1941Lahaanshaha sawirkaGETTY IMAGES
Image captionCiidammada Mareykanka ee 1940-yadii ayaa waxaa lagu tababari jiray inay toogtaan sawirkaas

Ilaa hadda kaddib Dagaalka Labaad ee Adduunka milateriga ayaa bilaabay inuu tababarka u isticmaalo wax bini’aadam loo soo ekeeysiiyay oo ay ku toogasho bartaan.

Arrintaas ayaa waxaa la rajaynayaa inay gacan ka gaysan doonto sidii meesha looga saari lahaa cabsida ay askartu ka qabaan inay si adag u dhaqmaan.

A US soldier stabs a target with a bayonetLahaanshaha sawirkaGETTY IMAGES